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Mosasaurus hoffmannii Reconstruction by PWNZ3R-Dragon Mosasaurus hoffmannii Reconstruction :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 89 41 Composite Megaraptorid Reconstruction 2.0 by PWNZ3R-Dragon Composite Megaraptorid Reconstruction 2.0 :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 82 26 Composite Megaraptorid Reconstruction (OUTDATED) by PWNZ3R-Dragon Composite Megaraptorid Reconstruction (OUTDATED) :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 62 26 White Rhino by PWNZ3R-Dragon White Rhino :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 9 2 Morning Run by PWNZ3R-Dragon Morning Run :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 51 9 Deinonychus Concept by PWNZ3R-Dragon Deinonychus Concept :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 54 6 Roosting Fulmar by PWNZ3R-Dragon Roosting Fulmar :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 5 6 Black Kite by PWNZ3R-Dragon Black Kite :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 14 2 Firestorm by PWNZ3R-Dragon Firestorm :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 57 18 Thalassodromeus by PWNZ3R-Dragon Thalassodromeus :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 165 28 Sinosauropteryx by PWNZ3R-Dragon Sinosauropteryx :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 42 13 Metaincinerox by PWNZ3R-Dragon Metaincinerox :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 14 3 Wandering Cryolophosaurus by PWNZ3R-Dragon Wandering Cryolophosaurus :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 20 12 Carcharodontosaurus Head by PWNZ3R-Dragon Carcharodontosaurus Head :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 20 5 Southern Cassowary by PWNZ3R-Dragon Southern Cassowary :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 9 2 Pyroraptor Head by PWNZ3R-Dragon Pyroraptor Head :iconpwnz3r-dragon:PWNZ3R-Dragon 10 3

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Mosasaurus hoffmannii Reconstruction
Time for a really long description, yay...

So for the last month or so, I’ve been working on this much anticipated Mosasaurus hoffmanni skeletal. After being known to science for over 200 years, I found it kinda shocking how literally no digital skeletals of this species exists on the internet and as a result, I've probably made one of the most rigorous restorations of this animal to date. I feel like I say that every time, but once you stick to the science it can be pretty jarring how different these creatures look from popular renderings.

Tylosaurus-clone Mosasaurus restorations can piss off, basically. 

If this skeletal has taught me anything, it's that the most important thing any paleontologist worth anything needs to document as many bones as they can in clear photographs, or at least rigorous drawings. It was shocking how much we apparently know of the genus, even this particular species, yet how little of it's actually pictured. How is anyone supposed to reconstruct this animal properly without appropriate images to work from? 

Also, Mosasaurus is also not 17m, despite some erroneous claims. That is a fact. There is no way the 1:10 head to body length ratio estimated in Russell 1967 stands for this genus. This thing has a HUGE skull relative to body size among mosasaurs, and a short tail to boot. Even the giant Russian specimen caps out at about 13m. It's entirely possible that Tylosaurus turns out to be the longer animal. However, while it's not exactly 17m massive, Mosasaurus is still pretty massive. Easily heavier than a Tylosaurus of a comparable length. Easily. It's just... big... 

Finally, if his skeletal has also taught me nothing else, it's that drawing vertebrae is tedious and I hate it.

I'm not terribly fond of the silhouette I've currently given it. I may come back to it and make a few tweaks but as far as I'm aware, the bones are at least fine. As always, I'm more than willing to make adjustments according to new data that comes my way or if someone spots a glaring error or something.***

As usual, give me a shout if you restore something based off my skeletal work. I like to see what people come up with. And you'll likely get a free fave too. :D

And now details. Fairly sure I'm going to forget a few specimens or papers used, but I'll edit if I remember anything else:

SPECIMENS USED:
Mosasaurus hoffmannii - CCMGE 10/2469, MNHN AC 9648, IRSNB 1624, IRSNB R24, IRSNB R26, IRSNB R299, IRSNB R300, NHMM 006696, NHMM 1193024, NHMM 2013001, RMDRC 14-015
Mosasaurus conodon - AMNH 1380, MOR 006
Mosasaurus sp. - UCMP 61221
Moanasaurus mangahouangae - S34-S77

BONES USED:
Skull - Heavily modified from the composite as seen in Street and Caldwell, 2017. Substituted the parietal provided with that from CCMGE 10/2469, and a modified brain case from Lingham-soliar 1995. Fixed the pterygoid to better fit the holotype's provided in the paper. Further details are listed in Street and Caldwell 2017. Sclerotic ring restored from NHMM 2013001.

Vertebrae - Bones restored from pictured elements from various specimens. Atlas from IRSNB R 300. Axis from IRSNB R26. Cervicals restored from NHMM 006696. Dorsals restored from IRSNB 1624, NHMM 006696 and S34-S77. Tail mostly restored from S34-S77 to fit UCMP 61221. Vertebrae count based on details listed for M. hoffmannii and M. conodon, Russell 1967 and Ikejiri and Lucas, 2015.

Ribs - Primarily speculative based on written descriptions provided by Russell 1967 and Lingham-Soliar 1995. Otherwise poorly documented in photo format save for a couple of fragments.

Pectoral girdle - Scapulocoracoid restored from IRSNB R26 and NHMM 006696. Damage restored with reference to MOR 006. Sternal elements speculative. 

Forelimb - Restored from IRSNB R26, IRSNB R 299, NHMM 1193024, and RMDRC 14-015. 

Pelvic Girdle - NHMM 006696.

Hindlimb - Restored from AMNH 1380, MNHN AC 9648, and NHMM 006696.

SCALE BARS:

i.imgur.com/6FRhxwo.png

A = MNHN AC 9648 (Holotype)
B = CCMGE 10/2469 (Largest recorded specimen)

All scale bars represent 1m (with 10cm intervals) in relation to their respective specimen.

REFERENCES:
Grigoriev, D.V., 2014. "Giant Mosasaurus hoffmanni (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Penza, Russia." Труды Зоологического института РАН318(2), pp.148-167.

Ikejiri, T. and Lucas, S.G., 2015. Osteology and taxonomy of Mosasaurus conodon Cope 1881 from the Late Cretaceous of North America. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences94(1), pp.39-54.

Lindgren, J., Caldwell, M.W., Konishi, T. and Chiappe, L.M., 2010. Convergent evolution in aquatic tetrapods: insights from an exceptional fossil mosasaur. PloS one5(8), p.e11998.

Lindgren, J., Polcyn, M.J. and Young, B.A., 2011. Landlubbers to leviathans: evolution of swimming in mosasaurine mosasaurs. Paleobiology37(3), pp.445-469.

Lingham-Soliar, T., 1995. "Anatomy and functional morphology of the largest marine reptile known, Mosasaurus hoffmanni (Mosasauridae, Reptilia) from the Upper Cretaceous, Upper Maastrichtian of the Netherlands." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences347(1320), pp.155-172. Vancouver

Russell, D.A., 1967. Systematics and morphology of American mosasaurs (Reptilia, Sauria) (Vol. 23). Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University. Vancouver

Street, H.P., and Caldwell, M.W., 2017. “Rediagnosis and redescription of Mosasaurus hoffmannii (Squamata: Mosasauridae) and an assessment of species assigned to the genus Mosasaurus,” Geological Magazine. Cambridge University Press, 154(3), pp. 521–557. doi: 10.1017/S0016756816000236.

Wiffen, J., 1980. Moanasaurus, a new genus of marine reptile (Family Mosasauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous of North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand journal of geology and geophysics23(4), pp.507-528. Vancouver

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
:iconyutyrannus:, :iconfishfossil: and :iconshadowdragon589: for keeping me on track during the creation of the skeletal.
:iconscotthartman: for his Tylosaurus, alongside the Platecarpus from Lindgren et al. 2010, was vital for restoring the posture of this Mosasaurus skeletal.

----

***I feel the need to make a disclaimer for this given how surprisingly often it's come up in response to what is primarily an osteological study. Yes I am aware that mosasaurs, like any squamate, would have had lips. I omitted them from this restoration partly because Scott Hartman excluded them from his Tylosaurus skeletal to showcase the teeth, and mostly because I couldn't get them to look right. Please refrain from having to remind me about it. I know already. I will likely address this issue in the future should I make changes to the silhouette of the skeletal. Thanks.


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Composite Megaraptorid Reconstruction 2.0
A few years ago, I made a thing, and that thing was a megaraptoran composite:
pwnz3r-dragon.deviantart.com/a…

I was really proud of it too, and it seemed to line up quite well with other skeletal reconstructions of the clade at the time, so I thought I did well with it.

Turns out, I was wrong.

Very wrong.

And because I don't like being wrong, I redid the whole thing from the ground up. With new papers, species, photos of old data thrown my way, and generally more attention to detail. And I actually attempted a restoration of even the really fragmented parts rather than casting them aside and using speculative place holders.

Overall, I think this one's a lot better. It might not be a lanky, overgrown "compsognathid" looking thing anymore. But now it looks a lot more like how you'd expect a group of 7m+ theropods to look. 

As for phylogenetic implications, I'm now less inclined to think it was a tyrannosauroid. Between this new look, and the few papers recently released on megaraptorans this past year, it seems to me at this point that megaraptora sits somewhere in that brownish soupy mix that is basal coelurosauria. I'm not sold on it being an allosauroid, especially because "neovenatoridae" seems to be crumbling apart as a concept anyway, since Neovenator itself seems to just be another carcharodontosaurid.

I do not have opinions on the phylogenetic placements of Siats or Chilantaisaurus yet. But I quite enjoy the concept of ginormous megaraptorans taking over the planet for even a small part of the mid-Cretaceous. Here's hoping!

Like last time, I'm more than willing to make any changes as new information about any megaraptoran rolls in. Let me know if you spot anything wrong, or new data pops up. More data is always a good thing.

Here's the details on what I used to make this skeletal.

SPECIMENS USED:
Aerosteon riocoloradense- MCNA-PV-3137 (Sereno et al., 2008)
Australovenator wintonensis - AODF 604 (Hocknull et al., 2009; White et al., 2012; White et al., 2013; White et al., 2015)
Megaraptor namunhuaiqui- MUCPv 341 (Calvo et al., 2004; Novas et al., 2016), MUCPv-595 (Porfiri et al., 2014)
Murusraptor barrosaensis - MCF-PVPH-411 (Coria & Currie, 2016)
Allosaurus fragilis - DINO 2560 (Madsen, 1976)

BONES USED:
Skull - Murusraptor brain case, lacrimal, postorbital, quadrate and lower jaw (Coria & Currie, 2016); Juvenile Megaraptor snout (Porfiri et al., 2014) modified to fit Murusraptor's posterior skull; Australovenator's dentary (White et al., 2015). Remaining elements speculative.

Vertebrae - Complete presacral series modified from Aerosteon (Sereno et al., 2008). Caudal vertebrae reconstructed from Aerosteon (Sereno et al., 2008), Megaraptor (Calvo et al., 2004) and Murusraptor (Coria & Currie, 2016), missing parts modified from Allosaurus (Madsen, 1976).

Ribs - Cervical ribs speculative. Dorsal ribs and gastralia from Australovenator (Hocknull et al., 2009) and Murusraptor (Coria & Currie, 2016).

Pectoral girdle - Scapulocoracoid and furcula from Aerosteon (Sereno et al., 2008). Sternal elements speculative.

Arms - Humerus and radius from Australovenator (Hocknull et al., 2009; White et al., 2012). Ulna and hand from Megaraptor (Novas et al., 2016).

Pelvic girdle - Ilium and pubis from Aerosteon (Sereno et al., 2008). Ischium restored from Murusraptor (Coria & Currie, 2016).

Leg - All hindlimb elements restored from Australovenator (Hocknull et al., 2009; White et al., 2013).

SCALE BARS:

i.imgur.com/P1zUzRs.png

A = Australovenator wintonensis
B = Murusraptor 
barrosaensis 
C = Megaraptor namunhuaiqui
D = Aerosteon riocoloradense

All scale bars represent 1m (with 10cm intervals) in relation to their respective species.

REFERENCES:
Calvo, J.O., Porfiri, J.D., Veralli, C., Novas, F. and Poblete, F., 2013. Phylogenetic status of Megaraptor namunhuaiquii Novas based on a new specimen from Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Ameghiniana41(4), pp.565-575.

Coria, R.A. and Currie, P.J., 2016. A New Megaraptoran Dinosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda, Megaraptoridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. PloS one11(7), p.e0157973.

Hocknull, S.A., White, M.A., Tischler, T.R., Cook, A.G., Calleja, N.D., Sloan, T. and Elliott, D.A., 2009. New mid-Cretaceous (latest Albian) dinosaurs from Winton, Queensland, Australia. PLoS One4(7), p.e6190.

Madsen Jr, J.H., 1976. Allosaurus fragilis: a revised osteology. Vancouver

Novas, F.E., ROLANDO, A.M.A. and AGNOLÍN, F.L., 2016. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cretaceous Gondwanan theropods Megaraptor and Australovenator: the evidence afforded by their manual anatomy. Victoria74, pp.49-61.

Porfiri, J.D., Novas, F.E., Calvo, J.O., Agnolín, F.L., Ezcurra, M.D. and Cerda, I.A., 2014. Juvenile specimen of Megaraptor (Dinosauria, Theropoda) sheds light about tyrannosauroid radiation. Cretaceous Research51, pp.35-55.

Sereno, P.C., Martinez, R.N., Wilson, J.A., Varricchio, D.J., Alcober, O.A. and Larsson, H.C., 2008. Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina. PLoS one3(9), p.e3303.

White, M.A., Cook, A.G., Hocknull, S.A., Sloan, T., Sinapius, G.H. and Elliott, D.A., 2012. New forearm elements discovered of holotype specimen Australovenator wintonensis from Winton, Queensland, Australia. PLoS One7(6), p.e39364.

White, M.A., Benson, R.B., Tischler, T.R., Hocknull, S.A., Cook, A.G., Barnes, D.G., Poropat, S.F., Wooldridge, S.J., Sloan, T., Sinapius, G.H. and Elliott, D.A., 2013. New Australovenator hind limb elements pertaining to the holotype reveal the most complete neovenatorid leg. PloS one8(7), p.e68649.

White, M.A., Bell, P.R., Cook, A.G., Poropat, S.F. and Elliott, D.A., 2015. The dentary of Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda, Megaraptoridae); implications for megaraptorid dentition. PeerJ3, p.e1512.

Special thanks go to :iconfranoys: and :iconjonagold2000: for their help!
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PWNZ3R-Dragon
*insert witty tagline here*
Hong Kong
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:icongreekrandomness:
GreekRandomness Featured By Owner Jul 26, 2017
I can't wait for your new skel >,>
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:iconpwnz3r-dragon:
PWNZ3R-Dragon Featured By Owner Jul 28, 2017
SOOOOON...
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:icongreekrandomness:
GreekRandomness Featured By Owner Jul 28, 2017
Lol you sure mate?
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:iconpwnz3r-dragon:
PWNZ3R-Dragon Featured By Owner Jul 28, 2017
Relatively speaking, yes.
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:icontadashi-station:
TADASHI-STATION Featured By Owner Jun 18, 2017  Professional General Artist
Thanks for Faving  Cretaceous Showdown!   , I appreciate it!
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:iconcmipalaeo:
CMIPalaeo Featured By Owner Dec 19, 2016
Thanks a lot for the watch!
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:iconmegalotitan:
Megalotitan Featured By Owner Feb 27, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Thanks for the fav! :happybounce:
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:iconshinreddear:
ShinRedDear Featured By Owner Feb 22, 2015
Thank you for the multiple favs ! :D
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:icontwilight-nexus:
twilight-nexus Featured By Owner Apr 4, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
:iconthanx4fav1plz::iconthanx4fav2plz:
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